Measurement of social recognition in the perception of a person who has experienced a traumatic event. Polish adaptation of the Social Recognition Questionnaire (SAQ)

Szymon Szumiał

University of Warsaw
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2842-4863

Maja Lis-Turlejska

SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7418-8566

Marcin Rzeszutek

University of Warsaw
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4230-3806

Iwona Drapała

Opole


Abstrakt

OBJECTIVE. The aim of the study was to adapt the Social Acknowledgment Questionnaire (SAQ) for the Polish-speaking population. The questionnaire is used to assess the socio-interpersonal responses to people who have experienced traumatic events.

METHOD. Studies were carried out in five groups representing different populations. The reliability of the SAQ was estimated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and intra-class correlation coefficients. The accuracy of the SAQ was checked with the use of confirmatory factor analysis and an analysis of the correlations between SAQ results vs. the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and depression symptoms.

RESULTS. The Polish adaptation of the SAQ meets the criteria of reliability and validity. The values of reliability were found to be sufficiently high, taking into account the dimensions of internal cohesion expressed by the values of Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, as well as stability expressed by intra-class correlation coefficients. The SAQ factor structure requires further analyses involving larger samples.

CONCLUSIONS. Social recognition can be a dynamic variable influenced by therapeutic interventions. The Polish version of the SAQ is a tool with good psychometric properties, which can be helpful in assessing the risk of PTSD development. It can also be a valuable questionnaire for further research in the context of prevention and treatment strategies for people with PTSD and their relatives.


Słowa kluczowe:

traumatic stress, PTSD, social recognition, SAQ, Polish adaptation

Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561–571. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004.   Google Scholar

Bentler, P.M. (1992). On the fit of models to covariances and methodology to the Bulletin. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 400– 404. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.3.400.   Google Scholar

Brewin C., Cloitre M., Hyland P., Shevlin M., Maercker A., Bryant R. i Reed G. (2017). A review of current evidence regarding the ICD-11 proposals for diagnosing PTSD and complex PTSD. Clin Psychol Rev. 58, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2017.09.001.   Google Scholar

Brewin C.R., Andrews B., Valentine J.D., Holloway R. (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. J Consult Clin Psychol. 68(5), 748–766. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.68.5.748.   Google Scholar

Brislin R.W. (1980). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. J Cross-Cult Psychol. 1, 185–216.   Google Scholar

Browne, M.W. & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K.A. Bollen & J.S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (136– 162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.   Google Scholar

Ehlers A i Clark DM. (2000). A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behav Res Ther. 38(4), 319–345.   Google Scholar

Eising, C. M., Voelkle, M. C., Rohner, S. L., Maercker, A., & Thoma, M. V. (2021). Lifetime post-traumatic stress disorder in older individuals with a history of institutional upbringing in childhood: The role of social acknowledgement and stressful life events. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 12(1), 1915578. https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2021.1915578.   Google Scholar

Engler, G. A., Goldzweig, G., Hasson, O. I., Laor, M. R., Braun, M., Engler-Gross, A., Hasson-Ohayon, I., & Laor-Maayany, R. (2020). Grief over patients, compassion fatigue, and the role of social acknowledgment among psycho-oncologists. Psycho-Oncology, 29(3), 493–499. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.5286.   Google Scholar

Foa E., Keane T., Friedman M., i Cohen J. (2005). Effective treatments for PTSD. Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. New York: Guilford Press.   Google Scholar

Guan, R., Gao, J., Liu, G., Cheng, F., & Ge, B. (2019). The Mediating Effect of Perceived Social Acknowledgment on the Relationship Between Patient Assaults and Posttraumatic Stress Reactions in Emergency Nurses. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 34(18), 3833–3849. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260516673627.   Google Scholar

Horowitz M.J. (1976). Stress response syndromes. New York: Aronson.   Google Scholar

Hu, L-T., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1– 55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118.   Google Scholar

Jones, B., Müller, J., & Maercker, A. (2006). Trauma and posttraumatic reactions in German development aid workers: Prevalences and relationship to social acknowledgement. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 52(2), 91–100. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764006061248.   Google Scholar

Kern, S. M., Stacy, S. E., Kozina, R. M., Ripley, A. J., & Clapp, J. D. (2019). Exploring the relation between posttraumatic stress disorder and interpersonal outcomes: The role of social acknowledgment and trauma type. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 75(1), 132–145. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22693.   Google Scholar

Kessler R.C., Chiu W.T., Demler O., Merikangas K.R. i Walters E.E. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 62(6), 617–627. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0084-3970(08)70124-5.   Google Scholar

Lis-Turlejska, M., Szumiał, S., & Drapała, I. (2018). Posttraumatic stress symptoms among Polish World War II survivors: the role of social acknowledgement. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 9(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2018.1423831.   Google Scholar

Ljubotina, D., Pantić, Z., Frančišković, T., Mladić, M., & Priebe, S. (2007). Treatment Outcomes and Perception of Social Acknowledgment in War Veterans: Follow-up Study. Croatian Medical Journal, 48(2), 157–166.   Google Scholar

Maercker A., Forstmeier S., Wagner B., Glaesmer H. i Brähler E. (2008). Post-traumatic stress disorder in Germany. Results of a nationwide epidemiological study. Nervenarzt. 79(5), 577–586. https:// doi: 10.1007/s00115-008-2467-5.   Google Scholar

Maercker A., i Horn A. (2013). A socio-interpersonal perspective on PTSD: The case for environments and interpersonal processes. Clin Psychol Psychother. 20(6), 465–481. https:// doi: 10.1002/cpp.1805.   Google Scholar

Maercker A., Müller J. (2004). Social acknowledgment as a victim or survivor: A scale to measure a recovery factor of PTSD. J Trauma Stress. 17, 345–351. https://doi: 10.1023/B:JOTS.0000038484.15488.3d.   Google Scholar

Maercker, A., & Müller, J. (2004). Social acknowledgment as a victim or survivor: A scale to measure a recovery factor of PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 17(4), 345–451. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOTS.0000038484.15488.3d.   Google Scholar

Mueller, J., Moergeli, H., & Maercker, A. (2008). Disclosure and social acknowledgement as predictors of recovery from posttraumatic stress: a longitudinal study in crime victims. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie. 53(3), 160–168. https://doi.org/10.1177/070674370805300306.   Google Scholar

Mueller, J., Orth, U., Wang, J., & Maercker, A. (2009). Disclosure attitudes and social acknowledgement as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity in Chinese and German crime victims. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 54(8), 547–556. https://doi: 10.1177/070674370905400807.   Google Scholar

Ogińska-Bulik, N., Juczyński, Z., Lis-Turlejska, M., i Merecz-Kot, D. (2018). Polska adaptacja PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 – PCL-5. Doniesienie wstępne. Przegląd Psychologiczny, 61(2), 281-285.   Google Scholar

Ozer E., Best S., Lipsey T. i Weiss D. (2003). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: A meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 129(1), 52–73. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.1.52.   Google Scholar

Rzeszutek, M., Lis-Turlejska, M., Krajewska, A., Zawadzka, A., Lewandowski, M., & Szumiał, S. (2020). Long-Term Psychological Consequences of World War II Trauma Among Polish Survivors: A Mixed-Methods Study on the Role of Social Acknowledgment. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 210. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00210.   Google Scholar

Sommer G., Fydrich T. (1991). Development and validation of a questionnaire on social support. Diagnostica, 37(2), 160–178.   Google Scholar

Thormar, S. B., Sijbrandij, M., Gersons, B. P. R., Van de Schoot, R., Juen, B., Karlsson, T., & Olff, M. (2016). PTSD Symptom Trajectories in Disaster Volunteers: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Social Acknowledgement, and Tasks Carried Out. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 29(1), 17–25. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22073.   Google Scholar

van der Velden P.G, Oudejans M., Das M., Bosmans M., i Maercker A. (2019). The longitudinal effect of social recognition on PTSD symptomatology and vice versa: Evidence from a population-based study. Psychiatry Res., 279, 287–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2019.05.044.   Google Scholar

Wagner, B., Keller, V., Knaevelsrud, C., & Maercker, A. (2012). Social acknowledgement as a predictor of post-traumatic stress and complicated grief after witnessing assisted suicide. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 58(4), 381–385. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764011400791.   Google Scholar

Weathers, F.W., Litz, B.T., Keane, T.M., Palmieri, P.A., Marx, B.P., & Schnurr, P.P. (2013). The PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Scale available from the National Center for PTSD at www.ptsd.va.gov.   Google Scholar

Weiss D.S, i Marmar C.R. (1997). The impact of event scale—Revised. W: Wilson JP, Keane TM [Ed.]. Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD. New York: Guilford Press, 399–411.   Google Scholar

Woodhouse S., Brown R., Ayers S. (2018). A social model of posttraumatic stress disorder: Interpersonal trauma, attachment, group identification, disclosure, social acknowledgement, and negative cognitions. J Theo Soc Psychol, 2, 35– 48. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts5.17.   Google Scholar

Xu, W., Wang, J., Wang, Z., Li, Y., Yu, W., Xie, Q., He, L., & Maercker, A. (2016). Web-based intervention improves social acknowledgement and disclosure of trauma, leading to a reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Journal of Health Psychology, 21(11), 2695–2708. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105315583371.   Google Scholar

Zhao Y., An Y., Sun X. i Liu J. (2020). Self-Acceptance, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Growth, and the Role of Social Support in Chinese Rescue Workers. J Loss Trauma. 25(3), 264-277. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2019.1672935.   Google Scholar


Opublikowane
2021-12-30

Cited By /
Share

Szumiał, S., Lis-Turlejska, M., Rzeszutek, M., & Drapała, I. (2021). Measurement of social recognition in the perception of a person who has experienced a traumatic event. Polish adaptation of the Social Recognition Questionnaire (SAQ). Przegląd Psychologiczny, 64(4), 101–117. https://doi.org/10.31648/przegldpsychologiczny.7884

Szymon Szumiał 
University of Warsaw
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2842-4863
Maja Lis-Turlejska 
SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7418-8566
Marcin Rzeszutek 
University of Warsaw
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4230-3806
Iwona Drapała 
Opole



Licencja

Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Przegląd Psychologiczny

Creative Commons License

Utwór dostępny jest na licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa – Użycie niekomercyjne – Bez utworów zależnych 4.0 Międzynarodowe.