From exploratory research to structural models: A multilevel lexical approach to studying the image of marketing objects

Magdalena Kolańska-Stronka

University of Zielona Góra

Oleg Gorbaniuk

University of Zielona Góra

Michał Wilczewski

University of Warsaw


The key problem in studies of marketing objects (e.g., brands, political parties) is the lack of agreement on the universal dimensions through which such objects are perceived, as well as on methodologies allowing their identification. As a result, researchers often use structural models (and instruments) that lack ecological validity. We offer a solution to that problem by presenting a methodology that draws on lexical research and which has allowed researchers to establish universal dimensions of personality perception in psychology. By discussing the theoretical and methodological tenets of the multilevel lexical approach to exploring images of marketing objects, we also overcome another problem of neglecting the hierarchical structure of the phenomena and data.

Słowa kluczowe:

structural model     image     marketing object     lexical research     multilevel approach

Aaker, J. L. (1997), Dimensions of brand personality. In: Journal of Marketing Research. 34 (3), 347-356.

Allport, G. W./Odbert, H. S. (1936), Trait-names. A psycho-lexical study. In: Psychological Monographs. 47 (1), i-171.

Ambroise, L./Valette-Florence, P. (2010), The brand personality metaphor and inter-product stability of a specific barometer. In: Recherche et Applications en Marketing. 25 (2), 3-28.

Ashton, M. C./Lee, K./Perugini, M. et al. (2004), A six-factor structure of personality-descriptive adjectives: Solutions from psycholexical studies in seven languages. In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 86, 356-366.

Austin, J. R./Siguaw, J. A./Mattila, A. S. (2003), A re-examination of the generalizability of the Aaker brand personality measurement framework. In: Journal of Strategic Marketing. 11 (2), 77-92.

Avis, M./Forbes, S./Ferguson, S. (2014), The brand personality of rocks: A critical evaluation of a brand personality scale. In: Marketing Theory. 14 (4), 451-475.

Bosnjak, M./Bochmann, V./Hufschmidt, T. (2007), Dimensions of brand personality attributions: A person-centric approach in the German cultural context. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal. 35 (3), 303-316.

Cieciuch, J./Davidov, E./Schmidt, P. et al. (2016), Assessment of cross-cultural comparability. In: Ch. Wolf/Joye, D./Smith, T. W./Fu, Y.-C. (eds), The SAGE handbook of survey methodology. Thousand Oaks, CA, 628-646.

Costa, P. T. Jr./McCrae, R. R./Dye, D. A. (1991), Facet scales for agreeableness and conscientiousness: A revision of the NEO Personality Inventory. In: Personality and Individual Differences. 12 (9), 887-898.

De Raad, B. (1998), Five big, Big Five issues: Rationale, content, structure, status, and cross-cultural assessment. In: European Psychologist, 3 (2). 113-124.

De Raad, B./Barelds, D. P./Levert, E. et al. (2010), Only three factors of personality description are fully replicable across languages: A comparison of 14 trait taxonomies. In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 98, 160-173.

De Raad, B./Barelds, D. P./Timmerman, M. E. et al. (2014), Towards a pancultural personality structure: Input from 11 psycho-lexical studies. In: European Journal of Personality. 28, 497-510.

Dodni, D./Zinkhan, G. M. (1990), In search of brand image: A foundation analysis. In: Advances in Consumer Research. 17 (1), 110-119.

Eysenck, H. J. (1991), Dimensions of personality: 16, 5 or 3? Criteria for a taxonomic paradigm. In: Personality and Individual Differences. 12 (8), 773-790.

Fiske, D. W. (1949), Consistency of the factorial structures of personality ratings from different sources. In: Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 44 (3), 329-344.

Galton, F. (1884), Measurement of character. In: Fortnightly Review. 36, 179-185.

Goldberg, L. R. (1981), Language and individual differences: The search for universals in personality lexicons. In: Review of Personality and Social Psychology. 2 (2), 141-165.

Goldberg, L. R. (1982), From ace to zombie: Some explorations in the language of personality. In: Spielberger, C. D./Butcher, J. N. (eds.), Advances in Personality Assessment, Vol. 1. Hillsdale, 203-234

Goldberg, L. R. (1990), An alternative “description of personality”: The Big-Five factor structure. In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 59 (6), 1216-1229.

Goldberg, L. R. (1992), The development of markers for the Big Five factor structure. In: Psychological Assessment. 4 (1), 26-42.

Gorbaniuk, O. (2011), Personifikacja marki: perspektywa psychologiczna i marketingowa. Lublin.

Gorbaniuk, O. (2016), Wykorzystywanie procedury sędziów kompetentnych w naukach społecznych i możliwości jej oceny psychometrycznej za pomocą narzędzi dostępnych w STATISTICA. In: Jakubowski, J./Wątroba, J. (eds), Zastosowanie statystyki i data mining w badaniach naukowych. Kraków, 5-20.

Gorbaniuk, O./Dudek, M. (2016), Właściwości psychometryczne kwestionariusza do pomiaru wizerunku konsumenta. In: Psychologiczne Zeszyty Naukowe. 1 (1), 1-16.

Gorbaniuk, O./Ivanova, A. (2018), The language as a source of knowledge about individual differences. In: Nauka. 4, 7-26.

Gorbaniuk, O./Kolańska, M./Wilczewski, M./Ivanova, A. (2017), A lexical study of comparisons with typical brand users of goods. In: Applied Linguistics. 22 (2), 29-44.

Gorbaniuk, O./Kusak, K./Kogut, A. et al. (2015), Dimensions of political party “personality” perception. In: Journal of Political Marketing. 14 (1), 35-63.

Gorbaniuk, O./Omiotek, M. (2011), Taksonomia leksykalna skojarzeń i struktura dyspozycji przypisywanych krajom. In: Psychologia Społeczna. 6 (4), 330-350.

Gorbaniuk, O./Razmus, W./Firlej, K. et al. (2017), Measuring corporate personality: A critical review and new insights. In: Journal of Brand Management. 24 (5), 423-438.

Gorbaniuk, O./Razmus, W./Slobodianyk, A. et al. (2017), Searching for a common methodological ground for the study of politicians’ perceived personality traits: A multilevel psycholexical approach. In: Journal of Research in Personality. 70 (4), 27-44.

Gorbaniuk, O./Toczyńska, M./Osiak, A. et al. (2012), Taksonomia leksykalna skojarzeń i struktura postrzegania konsumentów marek. In: Górnik-Durose, M./Zawadzka, M. (eds), W supermarkecie szczęścia. O różnorodności zachowań konsumenckich w kontekście jakości życia. Warszawa, 159-186.

Haynes, A./Lackman, C./Guskey, A. (1999), Comprehensive brand presentation: Ensuring consistent brand image. In: Journal of Product & Brand Management. 8 (4), 286-300.

Hendriks, A. J./Perugini, M./Angleitner, A. et al. (2003), The five-factor personality inventory: Cross-cultural generalizability across 13 countries. In: European Journal of Personality. 17(5), 347-373.

Keller, K. L. (1993), Conceptualizing, measuring, managing customer-based brand equity. In: Journal of Marketing. 57 (1), 1-22.

Keller, K. L. (1998), Brand knowledge structures. In: Keller, K. L. (ed.), Strategic brand management: Building. measuring, and managing brand equity. Upper Saddle River, NJ, 86-129.

Kressmann, F./Sirgy, M. J./Herrmann, A. et al. (2006), Direct and indirect effects of self-image congruence on brand loyalty. In: Journal of Business Research. 59 (9), 955-964.

Lee, K./Ashton, M. C. (2004), Psychometric properties of the HEXACO Personality Inventory. In: Multivariate Behavioral Research. 39 (2), 329-358.

Lee, K./Ashton, M. C. (2006), Further assessment of the HEXACO Personality Inventory: Two new facet scales and an observer report form. In: Psychological Assessment. 18, 182-191.

McCrae, R. R./Costa, P. X. (1985), Updating Norman’s ‘adequate taxonomy’: Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and in questionnaires. In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 49 (3), 710-721.

McCrae, R. R./Costa, P. T. (1987), Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 52 (1), 81-90.

Norman, W. T. (1963), Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. In: Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 66 (6), 574-583.

Peabody, D./De Raad, B. (2002), The substantive nature of psycholexical personality factors: A comparison across languages. In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 83 (4), 983-997.

Plummer, J. T. (1985), How personality makes a difference. In: Journal of Advertising Research. 24 (6), 27-31.

Poiesz, T. B. C. (1989), The image concept: Its place in consumer psychology. In: Journal of Consumer Psychology. 10 (4), 457-472.

Saucier, G./Hampson, S. E./Goldberg, L. R. (2000), Cross-language studies of lexical personality factors. In: Advances in Personality Psychology. 1, 1-36.

Saucier, G./Srivastava, S. (2015), What makes a good structural model of personality? Evaluating the Big Five and alternatives. In: Mikulincer, M./Shaver, P. R. (eds), APA handbook of personality and social psychology, Vol. 4: Personality processes and individual differences. Washington, DC, 283-305.

Smith, G. (2009), Conceptualizing and testing brand personality in British politics. In: Journal of Political Marketing. 8 (3), 209-232.


Cited By /

Kolańska-Stronka, M., Gorbaniuk, O., & Wilczewski, M. (2020). From exploratory research to structural models: A multilevel lexical approach to studying the image of marketing objects. Przegląd Wschodnioeuropejski, 11(2), 131–143.

Magdalena Kolańska-Stronka 
University of Zielona Góra
Oleg Gorbaniuk 
University of Zielona Góra
Michał Wilczewski 
University of Warsaw