DEFAULTNESS PATTERNS: A DIACHRONIC ACCOUNT

Sabri Alshboul

The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Department of English Language, Literature and Cultural Studies

Yousef Al Shaboul

The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Department of English Language, Literature and Cultural Studies



Abstrakt

Most approaches to inflectional morphology propose a synchronic account for the
establishment of defaultness in the plural inflection. The current research aims at exploring
the representation of the default system in JA at a diachronic level. The grammar of JA
displays two default plural forms: the sound feminine plural marked with the suffix -aat
(e.g. mataar/matar-aat ‘an airport/airports’) where a suffixation rule predicts the occurrence
of the default plural. The second default plural is the iambic broken plural marked with an
internal vowel change (short – long vowel) (kursi/karaasi ‘a seat/seats’). Our diachronic
analysis would take into account the default shift that occurred in the grammar of JA in
two different periods: the Turkish period and the British period. The findings reveal the
importance of the diachronic factors in determining the status of ‘defaultness’ in terms
of the ability of the lexicon to accept two default inflections. So, JA consists a hierarchy
that contains two defaults: the iambic broken plural and the sound feminine plural. This
mechanism of accepting two defaults gives insights into applying this multiple default format
crosslinguistically in which a grammar of a language can host a multiple default system.


Słowa kluczowe:

defaultness, Jordanian Arabic, diachronic default, sound feminine plural, iambic broken plural

Ababneh, J., Prokosch, E. (1997). Ottoman Loanwords in Jordanian Arabic. Grazer
Linguistische Studien 48, 1–7.

Berent, I., Pinker, S., Shimron, J. (1999). Default Nominal Inflection in Hebrew: Evidence for
Mental Variables. Cognition 72, 1–44.

Brian, D.J. (1998). Diachronic Morphology. In: A. Spencer, A.M. Zwicky. The Handbook
of Morphology. Blackwell Publisher.

Butros, A.J. (1963). English Loanwords in the Colloquial Arabic of Palestine (1917-1948)
and Jordan (1948-1962). PhD. Dissertation. Columbia University, 88–228.

Bybee, J. (1985). Morphology. A Study of the Relation Between Meaning and Form.
Amsterdam, John Benjamins.

Bybee, J. (1995). Regular Morphology and the Lexicon. Language and Cognitive Processes
10, 425–455.

Bybee, J. (1999). Use Impacts Morphological Representation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22,
1016–1017.

Bybee, J., Moder, C. (1983). Morphological Classes as Natural Categories. Language 59,
251–270.

Clahsen, H. (1999). Lexical Entries and Rules of Language: A Multi-Disciplinary Study
of German Inflection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22, 991–1060.

Clahsen, H., Eisenbeiss, S., Sonnenstuhl, I. (1997). Morphological Structure and the Processing
of Inflected Words. Theoretical Linguistics 23, 201–249.

Clahsen, H., Rothweiler, M., Woest, A., Marcus, G. (1992). Regular and Irregular Inflection
in the Acquisition of German Noun Plurals. Cognition 45, 225–255.

Farghal, M., Al-Khatib, M. (1999). English Borrowings in Jordanian Arabic: Distributins,
Functions and Attitudes. Graze Linguistische Studien 52, 1–18.

Halle, M., Marantz, A. (1993). Distributed Morphology and the Pieces of Inflection.
Cambridge/MA, MIT Press.

Holes, C. (1995). Modern Arabic. London, Longman.

Marcus, G. (1998a). Can Connectionism Save Constructivism? Cognition 66, 153–182.

Marcus, G. (1998b). Rethinking Eliminative Connectionism. Cognitive Psychology 37(3),
243–282.

Marcus, G., Brinkmann, U., Clahsen. H., Wiese, R., Pinker, S. (1995). German Inflection:
The Exception that Proves the Rule. Cognitive Psychology 29, 189–256.

Marcus, G.F., Pinker, S., Ullman, M., Hollander, M., Rosen, T., Xu, F. (1992). Overregularization
in Language Acquisition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child
Development. Serial no. 228, Vol. 57.

Plunkett, K., Marchman, R. (1993). From Rote Learning to System Building: Acquiring Verb
Morphology in Children and Connectionist Nets. Cognition 48, 21–69.

Plunkett, K., Nakisa, C. (1997). A Connectionist Model of Arabic Plural System. Language
and Cognitive Processes 12, 807– 836.

Prasada, S., Pinker, S. (1993). Generalisation of Regular and Irregular Morphological
Patterns. Language and Cognitive Processes 8, 1–56.

Ratcliffe, R. (1998). The ‘‘Broken’’ Plural Problem in Arabic and Comparative Semitic:
Allomorphy and Analogy in Non-Concatenative Morphology. Amsterdam, John Benjamins.
Ravid, D., Farah, R. (1999). Learning About Noun Plurals in Early Palestinian Arabic. First
Language 19, 187–206.

Rumelhart, D.E., McClelland, J.L. (1986). On Learning the Past Tense of English Verbs:
Implicit Rules or Parallel Distributed Processing? In: J.L. McClelland, D.E. Rumelhart,The PDP Research Group (eds.). Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the
Microstructure of Cognition. Vol. 2. Cambridge/MA, MIT Press.

Say, T., Clahsen, H. (2002). Words, Rules and Stems in the Italian Mental Lexicon. In:
S. Nooteboom, F. Weerman, F. Wijnen (eds.). Storage and Computation in the Language
Faculty. Kluwer.

Suleiman, S. (1985). Jordanian Arabic Between Diglossia and Bilingualism. Amsterdam,
John Benjamin Publishing Company.

Wright, W. (1995). A Grammar of the Arabic Language. Cambridge, Cambridge University
Press.

Zwicky, A. (1986). The General Case: Basic Form Versus Default Form. Proceedings of the
Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society 12, 305–314.

Opublikowane
2010-12-01

Cited By /
Share

Alshboul, S., & Al Shaboul, Y. (2010). DEFAULTNESS PATTERNS: A DIACHRONIC ACCOUNT. Acta Neophilologica, 1(XII), 67–80. Pobrano z https://czasopisma.uwm.edu.pl/index.php/an/article/view/1261

Sabri Alshboul 
The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Department of English Language, Literature and Cultural Studies
Yousef Al Shaboul 
The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Department of English Language, Literature and Cultural Studies