Is it hate, or is it not hate? That is the question. Preliminary remarks on Internet definitions and descriptions of hate

Alina Naruszewicz-Duchlińska

Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie


This article presents results of a qualitative analysis of definitions and descriptions
of hate created by Internet users. Hate is usually considered to be a type of deliberate
action aimed at harming other people. It is also defined as a form of language use and
identified with hate speech. According to Internet users, hate violates the standards
of speech and has an emotional aspect, i.e. it is used to express or instil particular
emotions. The article analyses the three aforementioned categories of hate – hate as an
action, language and emotion. Furthermore, the characteristics of hate most commonly
indicated by Internet users are presented: lack of factual value, use of personal arguments, lack of a rational reason for the attack, anonymity and evil intentions of the hater,
negative emotional content, disregard for etiquette and netiquette and an unlimited scope
of references. The article also scrutinizes differences and similarities between hate and
criticism and presents both phenomena from the perspective of Internet users.


online definitions of hate, what is hate, characteristics of hate, hate and criticism


Cited by

Naruszewicz-Duchlińska, A. (2021). Is it hate, or is it not hate? That is the question. Preliminary remarks on Internet definitions and descriptions of hate. Prace Językoznawcze, 23(2), 303–316.

Alina Naruszewicz-Duchlińska 
Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie


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