Historical Path Dependency and Media Freedom: Poland and Ukraine in the 1990s
Svitlana SorokaDepartment of Public Administration, Petro Mohyla Black Sea National University, 68 Desantnikiv 10, 54003 Mykolayiv
Yuliana PalagnyukDepartment of Social Work, Governance and Pedagogy, Petro Mohyla Black Sea National University, 68 Desantnikiv 10, 54003 Mykolayiv
The paper’s objective is to explain the different levels of media freedom in the post-socialist counties of Central and Eastern Europe in the 1990s, particularly in Poland and Ukraine. Even though these two countries are very close geographically, they started the process of transition from communism to democracy and initiated media reforms in the same period, in 10 years the results of these processes were different: Poland achieved the level of free media whereas Ukraine did not. The theories of Putnam’s deep long-term historical path dependence approach, East Central European historians and path dependence approaches of the economic reforms in the 1990s in the Central and Eastern European countries of post-socialist transitions are combined and applied for the analysis of media freedom in the 1990s and its deep historical predecessors in the sample countries.
Keywords:media freedom, media reforms, post-socialist transition, democracy
Arthur Brian, 1994, Increasing returns and path dependence in the economy, Universi¬ty of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
Ash Timothy Garton, 1991, The Polish revolution: Solidarity, Viking Penguin, London.
Bibó István, 1991, Democracy, revolution, self-determination: selected writings, Atlan¬tic Research Publications, New York.
Casmir Fred, 1995, Communication in Eastern Europe: the role of history, culture, and media in contemporary conflicts, Lawrence Erlbaum, New Jersey.
Chornovil Vyacheslav, 1968, The Chornovil papers, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Downing John, 1996, Internationalizing media theory: transition, power, culture: reflec¬tions on mass media in Russia, Poland and Hungary 1980–95, Sage Publications, London.
Fish Stevens, 1998, The Determinants of Economic Reform in the Post-Communist World, East European Politics and Societies, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 31–78.
Goban-Klas Tomasz, 1994, The orchestration of the media: the politics of mass commu¬nications in communist Poland and the aftermath, Westview Press, Boulder, Colo.
Gross Peter, 2002, Entangled evolutions: media and democratization in Eastern Eu¬rope, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Halecki Oskar, 1992, A history of Poland, Dorset Press, New York.
Hoffmann Riem Wolfgang, 1996, Regulating Media, The Guilford Press, New York.
Hrushevsky Michael, 1970, A history of Ukraine, Archon Books, Yale.
Kemp-Welch Anthony, 1991, The birth of Solidarity, Macmillan, Houndmills, Bas¬ingstoke, Hampshire.
Kopstein Jeffrey and Reilly David, 2000, Geographic Diffusion and the Transformation of the Postcommunist World, World Politics, 53 (1), pp. 1–37. https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0043887100009369.
Krawchenko Bohdan, 1983, Ukraine after Shelest, University of Toronto Press, Ed¬monton.
Lange Yasha, 1997, Media in the CIS: a study of the political, legislative and socio-eco¬nomic framework, European Institute for the media, Düsseldorf.
Leftwich Jane and Fajfer Luba, 1996, Poland’s permanent revolution: people vs. elites, 1956 to the present, American University Press, Washington.
Liana Giorgi, 1995, Post – socialist Media: What Power the West? The changing Media landscape in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic, Aldershot, Avebury.
Lukowski Jerzy and Zawadzki Hubert, 2001, A concise history of Poland, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Magocsi Paul Robert, 1996, A history of Ukraine, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
Mahoney James, 2001, The legacies of liberalism: path dependence and political re¬gimes in Central America, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Milor Vedat, 1994, Changing political economies: privatization in post-communist and reforming communist states, L. Rienner, Boulder, Colo.
Misztal Bronislaw, 1985, Poland after Solidarity: social movements versus the state, Transaction Books, New Brunswick.
Niczow Aleksandar, 1982, Black book of Polish censorship, Główny Urząd Kontroli Prasy, Publikacji i Widowisk, Warszawa.
North Douglass, 1995, Institutions, institutional change, and economic performance, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
O’Neil Patrick, 1997, Post-communism and the media in Eastern Europe, Frank Cass, London.
Paletz David and Jakubowicz Karol, 2002, Business as usual: continuity and change in Central and Eastern European media, Hampton Press, New Jersey.
Putnam Robert, Leonardi Robert and Raffaell Nanetti, 1993, Making democracy work: civic traditions in modern Italy, Princeton University Press, Princeton N.J.
Reddaway William, 2016, The Cambridge history of Poland, Cambridge University Press, London.
Reid Anna, 1999, Borderland: a journey through the history of Ukraine, Westview Press, Boulder, Colo.
Richter Andrei, 2002, The Partial Transition. Ukraine’s post-communist media, in: Monroe Price, Rozumilowicz Beata and Verhulst Stefaan (ed.), Media reform: de¬mocratizing the media, democratizing the state, Routledge, London, New York. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203471418.
Rudnytsky Ivan, 1987, Essays in modern Ukrainian history, Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, Edmonton.
Smoliy Valeriy, 1997, Istoriya Ukrainy, Alternativy, Kyiv.
Subtelny Orest, 1994, Ukraine: a history, Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, Toronto.
Sukosd Miklos and Bajomi-Lazar Peter, 2003, Reinventing Media: Media Policy reform in East Central Europe, CEU Press, Budapest.
Szucs Jeno, 1983, The three historical regions of Europe: an outline, Hungarian Acade¬my of Sciences, Budapest.
Toch Marta, 1986, Reinventing civil society: Poland’s quiet revolution, 1981–1986, Hel¬sinki Watch Committee, New York.
Walesa Lech, 1987, A way of hope, Henry Holt, New York.
Wilson Andrew, 2000, The Ukrainians: unexpected nation, Yale University Press, New Haven.